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CSE Citation Style

CSE In-Text Citation Options Tabbed

In-Text Reference Systems in CSE

(CSE 8th; 29.2)

The CSE citations style allows for the use of one of three possible in-text reference systems: 1) Name-Year, 2) Citation-Sequence and 3) Citation-Name. Each system has benefits and limitations and you should consider each prior to selection.

Name-Year (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2):

In-text citations using the Name-Year style are set off from the text body with parentheses and include an author surname followed by a space and the year of publication.  Examples of several common variations are provided below.  Consult the CSE style guide for additional variants:

Single Author:

Format: (Surname Year)

Example: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet (Smith 1776).

Two Authors (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2.4):

Format: (Surname1 "and" Surname2 Year)

Example: At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum (Laurel and Hardy 1931).

More Than Two Authors (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.2.4):

Format: (Surname1 "et al." Year)

Example: Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor (Peart et al. 1980).

Citation-Sequence (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.1):

In the Citation-Sequence style, In-Text citations are indicated using superscripted numbers that increase based on the order they are added to the text. The first reference encountered in the text would be numbered "1", the new reference would be "2", etc.

End References (aka the bibliography) are numbered and listed sequentially based on this order of appearance in the text.

Citation-Name (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.3):

The Citation-Name style is probably the least used of the three CSE In-Text citation options.  In this style, after the complete list of End References (aka the bibliography) is finalized, this list is alphabetized by first author surname and then numbered sequentially.

In-Text citations are then indicated throughout the text body using superscripted numbers corresponding to this alphabetized list.

In-Text Formatting and Placement

(CSE 8th; 29.2.4)

What follows are basic style and placement guidelines for the Name-Year, Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name in-text citation systems. For additional examples, please refer to Chapter 29.3 of CSE 8th.

Name-Year System:

In-text citations using the Name-Year style should be placed within parentheses and "on the line" (i.e. in line with the text body and not super- or sub-scripted).

Name-Year style In-text citations should be the same font size as the surrounding text.

Citations should be placed as close to the the element cited as reasonably possible. This allows the reader to form a more unambiguous connection between a fact or concept and the cited source material.

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name Styles (CSE 8th; 29.2.1.1):

Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name style in-text citation numbers should be super-scripted and in a slightly smaller font size.

As with the Name-Year in-text style, numbered citations should be placed as close to the the element cited as reasonably possible. This allows the reader to form a more unambiguous connection between a fact or concept and the cited source material.

Superscripted numbers should be placed AFTER commas and ending punctuation (i.e. periods, question marks and exclamation points), but BEFORE colons and semicolons.