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CSE Citation Style

Sound Recordings

Sound Recordings

(CSE 8th;

The CSE 8th edition style guide classifies sound recordings as "Audiovisuals".  Bibliography citations for sound recordings are  formatted using basic elements very similar to those found in citations to other print documents like books and journals (e.g author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, and extent).

However, "medium designator" information must be included to indicate the specialized equipment required to access the audiovisual content (e.g. DVD, CD-ROM, Internet, MP3, Slides, Microfiche, vinyl LP, audiocassette, videocassette).  This "medium designator" can also be used to indicate a content type different than standard book or journal materials (e.g. photograph, painting, motion picture).

Required citation elements include the author(s), document title, medium designator, place of publication, publisher, publication date.

Optional elements include  extent (i.e. pagination) and notes.  For an sound recording, extent corresponds to the duration of the recording cited in minutes.  The "Notes" field provides succinct clarifying and/or location information useful for creating an unambiguous citation.



Author(s). Date. Audiovisual title [medium designator]Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes. 

Rush. 1997. Signals [Audio CD]. Remastered reissue. New York: Mercury Records. 42:31 minutes. Audio CD remastered reissue of original 1982 recordings.


Citation-Sequence and Citation-Name:

Citation Number. Author(s). Audiovisual title [medium designator]Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Extent. Notes.

1. Rush. Signals [Audio CD]. Remastered reissue. New York: Mercury Records; 1997. 42:31 minutes. Audio CD remastered reissue of original 1982 recordings.