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Chicago Citation Style

There is no single "right" way to cite a sound recording because the important information for a reader can be the composer, the lyricist, the performer, the conductor, or the ensemble.  Like any other citation, the purpose of a sound recording citation is to lead the reader to EXACTLY the same version of the source material the researcher heard.  Recordings on CD or online are often "re-mastered" from the LP version, and significant changes are made, so it is essential to cite the correct format.  Below are a few suggestions of ways to think about and cite classical compositions, jazz standards, and popular recordings.  These are common scenarios, but variations on the notes below are likely, and almost certainly necessary. 

Sound Recordings

CD/LP/Cassette emphasizing the composer 

(CMS16 14.276)

 

 

Craft your notes and bibliography to emphasize the information most important to your argument. BE CONSISTENT.  FOR EXAMPLE, DO NOT CITE THE SAME EXACT WORK EMPHASIZING THE COMPOSER ONE TIME AND THE PERFORMER ANOTHER TIME.

The first examples emphasize the composer:

Full Note:

Note Number. Composerfirst M. Composerlast, Composition Title, with Soloist, Ensemble, and/or Conductor information, recording date, on Disc Title, Label Publisher #, PubYear, format.

1. Hector Berlioz, D'amour l'ardente flamme (La damnation de Faust), with Joyce DiDonato, mezzo-soprano and the Orchestre et Chœur de l'Opéra national de Lyon, conducted by Kazushi Ono, recorded Sept. 18-28, 2010, on Diva, Divo, Virgin Classics 5099909487451, 2011, compact disc.

OR

2. Hector Berlioz, D'amour l'ardente flamme, with Françoise Pollet, soprano, the choir and orchestra of the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal, conducted by Charles Dutoit, recorded Oct. 27-29, 1994, from La damnation de Faust, London 444 812-2, 1996, compact disc.

CD/LP/Cassette emphasizing the performer/conductor 

(CMS16 14.276)

 

These are the same recordings emphasizing the soloist and the conductor.  :

Note Number. Performerfirst M. Performerlast (role), Composition/Track/Album Title, by Composer Names, with Ensemble, and/or Conductor information, recording date, on Disc Title, Label Publisher #, PubYear, format.

1. Joyce DiDonato (mezzo-soprano), D'amour l'ardente flamme (La damnation de Faust), by Hector Berlioz with the Orchestre et Chœur de l'Opéra national de Lyon, conducted by Kazushi Ono, recorded Sept. 18-28, 2010, on Diva, Divo, Virgin Classics 50999 641986 0 6, 2011, compact disc.

OR

2. Charles Dutoit (conductor), D'amour l'ardente flamme, by Hector Berlioz with Françoise Pollet, soprano and the choir and orchestra of the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal, recorded Oct. 27-29, 1994, from La damnation de Faust, London 444 812-2, 1996, compact disc.

Short Note -- must be preceded by the full citation somewhere in the work:

For the short note, cite whatever is need to match the full citation in a previous note and in the bibliography.  (CMS16 14.24-28)

Note Number. Lastname, Short Title, Composer/performer or other identifying information.

12. Brahms, Symphony No. 4,  Walter (cond.).

...

29. Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, Bernstein (cond.), recorded live in Berlin, December 25, 1989.

30. Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, Bernstein (cond.), recorded May 18,1964.

31. Ibid.

Bibliography: Note that because LPs can have different speeds, that information can be essential.

LastName, FirstName M. Title of Work, with Performers, Ensemble, and Conductor, recording date , on Disc Title, Record Label #, release year, format.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony no. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, "Choral". New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Juilliard Chorus, Leonard Bernstein, cond. With Martina Arroyo, soprano; Regina Sarfaty, mezzo-soprano; Nicholas Di Virgilio, tenor; and Norman Scott, bass. Recorded May 18, 1964. The Nine Syphonies. Columbia D8S 815, 1970, 33 1/3 rpm.

Audio recording in a library database 

(CMS16 14.276)

 

 

Follow the suggestions for CDs/LPs/Cassettes with the addition of a stable URL, doi, or the name of the database.  The format should be 'streaming audio.'   To identify an exact event or quotation, use time code:

Full Note:

Note Number. Composerfirst M. Composerlast, Composition Title, with Soloist, Ensemble, and/or Conductor information, recording date, on Disc Title, Label Publisher #, PubYear, format, hh:mm:ss. URL.

12. Hector Berlioz, D'amour l'ardente flamme (La damnation de Faust), with Joyce DiDonato, mezzo-soprano and the Orchestre et Chœur de l'Opéra national de Lyon, conducted by Kazushi Ono, recorded Sept. 18-28, 2010, on Diva, Divo, Virgin Classics 5099909487451, 2011, streaming audio, 01:17. http://bates.naxosmusiclibrary.com/catalogue/item.asp?cid=5099909487451.

Bibliography: 

Note that in this example, the CD is streamed from a library database, and that the URL is given.  CDs can have several publisher's numbers.  Use the one that makes it easy to find the exact recording you heard.

LastName, FirstName M. Title of Work, with Performers, Ensemble, and Conductor, recording date , on Disc Title, Record Label #, release year, format, URL.

Berlioz, Hector. D'amour l'ardente flamme (La damnation de Faust). With Joyce DiDonato, mezzo-soprano and the Orchestre et Chœur de l'Opéra national de Lyon, conducted by Kazushi Ono. Recorded Sept. 18-28, 2010. On Diva, Divo, Virgin Classics 5099909487451, 2011, streaming audio. http://bates.naxosmusiclibrary.com/catalogue/item.asp?cid=5099909487451.

Audio or video recording in a web service or online archive 

(CMS16 14.280)

 

 

Follow the suggestions for CDs/LPs/Cassettes with the addition of a stable URL, doi, or the name of the database.  An accessed date should be included, since tracks and recordings may disappear from services or websites. The format can either be 'streaming audio' or the exact format if you know the file type.  Streaming services often do not provide complete album information.  To identify an exact event or quotation, use time code:

Full Note:

Note Number. Creatorfirst M. Creatorlast, Title, NameofService, with other relevant information, posting date, on Disc Title, Label Publisher #, PubYear, format, hh:mm:ss. URL.

57. Stephen Schwartz, For Good, iTunes track, with Idina Menzel and Kristen Chenoweth, on Wicked (Original Cast Recording), 2003, streaming audio. 3:19.

58. Stephen Schwartz, The Magic Show: Lion Tamer, YouTube, 2:19-2:44, sung by Didi Conn, from the 1983 filmed stage production of The Magic Show with Doug Henning, posted by Rachel Doyle, December 7, 2013, accessed December 7, 2016, https://youtu.be/5HCBCvhtZhc?list=PL9z1K-B6tNyKei9HJmeQ3aiaEdEjvabrj.

59. Rent, directed by Chris Columbus, with Anthony Rapp, Adam Pascal, Rosario Dawson, Jesse L. Martin, Wilson Jermaine Heredia, Idina Menzel, Tracy Thomas, and Taye Diggs, based on Jonathan Larson's musical of the same name, 2005, Netflix.

Bibliography: 

LastName, FirstName M. Title. Other relevant information. On Disc Title, Label #, release year, format, URL.

Miranda, Lin-Manuel. Helpless. With Phillippa Soo. Track 10 on Hamilton: an American Musical (Original Broadway Cast Recording), Atlantic Records, 2015, streaming audio, Amazon Prime, https://www.amazon.com/Hamilton-Original-Broadway-Recording-Explicit/dp/B0135P6PZA.

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