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Biology 204 - Biological Research Experience: Molecules to Ecosystems

Link to a recent issue of "Ecology Journal"

Navigate to this issue of "Ecology" and check out the bibliographies of a few research articles for examples of citations within an actual journal article.

Volume 104, Issue 9 September 2023

Individual Citation Examples for Common Source Types

Journal article with 1 author:

Damuth, J. 1987. "Interspecific Allometry of Population Density In Mammals and Other Animals: The Independence of Body Mass and Population Energy‚ÄźUse." Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 31:193-246.

Journal article with 2 authors:

Greenberg, C. H., and A. McGrane. 1996. "A Comparison of Relative Abundance and Biomass of Ground-Dwelling Arthropods Under Different Forest Management Practices." Forest Ecology and Management 89:31-41.

Journal article with more than 2 authors:

Reuman, D. C., C. Mulder, D. Raffaelli, and J. E. Cohen. 2008. "Three Allometric Relations of Population Density To Body Mass: Theoretical Integration and Empirical Tests In 149 Food Webs." Ecology Letters 11:1216-1228.

White, E. P., S. K. M. Ernest, A. J. Kerkhoff, and B. J. Enquist. 2007. "Relationships Between Body Size and Abundance In Ecology." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:323-330.

Online Only (Electronic) Journal Article with more than 2 authors:

MacLean, H. J., J. G. Sørensen, T. N. Kristensen, V. Loeschcke, K. Beedholm, V. Kellermann, and J. Overgaard. 2019. "Evolution and Plasticity of Thermal Performance: An Analysis of Variation In Thermal Tolerance and Fitness In 22 Drosophila Species." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 374:20180548.

Sheldon, K. S., M. Padash, A. W. Carter, and K. E. Marshall. 2020. "Different Amplitudes of Temperature Fluctuation Induce Distinct Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Responses In The Dung Beetle Phanaeus vindex." The Journal of Experimental Biology 223:jeb.233239.

Book with 2 authors:

Legendre, P., and L. Legendre. 2012. Numerical Ecology. Third English edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Book chapter with more than 2 authors:

Rosenzweig, M. L., J. Donoghue, Y. M. Li, and C. Yan. 2011. "Estimating Species Density." In Biological Diversity: Frontiers In Measurement and Assessment, edited by A. E. Magurran and B. J. McGill, 276-288. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Newspaper Article:

Humphries, C. "Those COVID Tracking Charts Start Here, With Biobot Sewage Analysis That Knows We’re Sick Before We Do." Globe Magazine, February 4, 2022.


NFU. 2014. "Healthy Harvest." National Farmers Union, Warwickshire, UK.

PhD Dissertation:

Zhou, S. 2011. Genetic Basis of Phenotypic Plasticity In Drosophila melanogaster. Dissertation. North Carolina State University, Ann Arbor.